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Dasa Kusala Kamma and Dasa Akusala Kamma or Ten Wholesome Deeds and Ten Unwholesome Deeds

 

Dasa Kusala is known as Ten Wholesome Deeds (Action) or Ten Meritorious Deeds and Dasa Akusala is known as Ten Unwholesome Deeds or Ten Immoral Deeds. Deeds and Action can be considered to give the same meaning here.

 

 

Dasa Kusala Kamma and Dasa Akusala Kamma Explained

Sàleyyaka Sutta discourse, disclosed by Gautama Buddha at Sala village of Kosala kingdom, describes one of the most important points of the Buddha Dhamma, namely Dasa Kusala Kamma ( Ten Wholesome Deeds) and Dasa Akusala Kamma ( Ten Unwholesome Deeds). The essence of the Sutta describing Kusala and Akusala kamma can be put forward as follows.

 

Dasa Akusala Kamma or Ten Unwholesome Deeds or Actions

There are three ( 3 ) types of Wrong Conduct a human being is capable of.
(1) Wrong Conduct with Body
(2) Wrong Conduct with Words
(3) Wrong Conduct with Mind

 

There are three (3) sub divisions of Wrong Conduct with Body

(1.1) Killing of living creatures of all sorts, being wicked with bloody hands, engaged in killing living creatures in various methods, being uncompassionate towards living beings of all sorts

(1.2) Stealing possessions belonging to others whether in village or in forest not given to him with deceived mind status

(1.3) Misbehaves sexually with women, Those who are protected by Mother, protected by Father, protected by Mother and Father, protected by Brother, protected by Sister, protected by Relations, protected by the Clan, protected by Dhamma, those having a Husband, those consented for marriage, those who are promised for marriage in whatever way.

There are four (4) sub divisions of Wrong Conduct with Words.

(2.1)There is one who lies, in an assembly, amidst people, amidst relations, amidst royal court or government. There when asked by Judges to tell what he knows, without knowing, he would say that he knows, with knowing, would say that he does not know. Without seeing, would say that he saw and seeing would say that he did not see. As mentioned he would lie knowingly due to self benefit, or due to influence of others or due to a bribe or a reward offered.

(2.2) One would slander. Hearing from here, goes elsewhere and tell to disunite or to split here. Hearing from elsewhere, would tell here to disunite or to split there. Thus would disunite the united. Would separate out the split ones. Take pleasure on creating split up groups , would speak to create such split up groups.

(2.3) One would talk roughly. Talk words that make others angry, words that are unpleasant, scathing words that others despise. His talk does not pave way to concentration.

(2.4) One would engage in frivolous talk and gossip. Talk that is not suitable to that moment, talk that is false, talk that has no meaning, talk that is not conductive to dhamma or vinaya.


There are three (3) sub divisions of Wrong Conduct with Mind.

(3.1) One would be greedy. Would think greedily on other's wealth. Would desire the wealth belonging to others to be his.

(3.2) One would be angry. His mind is defiled and with destructive thoughts of others he does not like. Would think of ill will towards them and would want to destroy and kill them.

(3.3) One would be of wrong and distorted views as follows. Would think there is no merit (vipaka) on giving, no merit on worshipping (alms giving), no merit on helping and looking after others, no merit on good deeds (actions) or bad deeds ( kusala kamma and akusala kamma), there isn't a thing called present world, there isn't a thing called world after death, thinks there is no specialty in Mother, thinks there is no specialty in Father, do not believe in spontaneous births of beings ( birth in hell, heaven etc), do not believe in recluses and brahmins who has gained wisdom that had enabled them to gain inpaths to see this world and the other worlds.

Gautama Buddha further says that due to above mentioned Wrong Conducts, some born in hell after death.

 

 

Dasa Kusala or Ten Wholesome Deeds or Actions

 

There are three ( 3 ) types of Wrong Conduct a human being is capable of.
(1) Right Conduct with Body
(2) Right Conduct with Words
(3) Right Conduct with Mind

 

There are three (3) sub divisions of Right Conduct with Body

(1.1) Abstain from killing of living creatures of all sorts, abstain being wicked with bloody hands, not engaged in killing living creatures in whatever method, being compassionate towards living beings of all sorts

(1.2) Abstain from stealing possessions belonging to others whether in village or in forest not given to him with deceived mind status

(1.3) Abstain from misbehaving sexually with women , Those who are protected by Mother, protected by Father, protected by Mother and Father, protected by Brother, protected by Sister, protected by Relations, protected by the Clan, protected by Dhamma, those having a Husband, those consented for marriage, those who are promised for marriage on a future day in whatever way ( by garlanding etc).

 

There are four (4) sub divisions of Right Conduct with Words.

(2.1)There is one who abstain from telling lies, in an assembly, amidst people, amidst relations, amidst royal court or government. There when asked by Judges to tell what he knows, without knowing, he would say that he don't know, with knowing, would say that he does know. Without seeing, would say that he did not see and seeing would say that he saw. As mentioned he would not lie knowingly even due to self benefit, or due to influence of others or due to a bribe or a reward offered.

(2.2) One would abstain from slander. Hearing from here, does not go elsewhere and tell to disunite or to split here. Hearing from elsewhere, would not tell here to disunite or to split there. Thus would unite the disunited. Would bring together the split ones. Take pleasure on uniting up groups , would speak to create unity among groups.

(2.3) One would not talk roughly. Does not talk words that make others angry, Speak words that are pleasant, words that others like. His talk paves way to bring together everybody.

(2.4)One would abstain from frivolous talk and gossip. Would talk that is suitable to that moment, would talk that is truth, would talk that is meaningful, would talk that is conductive to dhamma or vinaya.

 


There are three (3) sub divisions of Correct Conduct with Mind.

(3.1) One would abstain being greedy. Would not think greedily on other's wealth. Would not desire the wealth belonging to others to be his.

(3.2) One would not be angry. His mind is not defiled and without destructive thoughts of others Would think of loving kindness on all beings.

(3.3) One would be of right views as follows. Would think there is merit (vipaka) on giving, merit on worshipping (alms giving), merit on helping and looking after others, merit on good deeds (actions) or bad deeds ( kusala kamma and akusala kamma), there is a thing called present world, there is a thing called world after death, thinks there is specialty in Mother, thinks there is specialty in Father, do believe in spontaneous births of beings ( birth in hell, heaven etc), do believe in recluses and brahmins who has gained wisdom that had enabled them to gain inpaths to see this world and the other worlds.

Gautama Buddha says that due to above mentioned Right Conducts, some born in heaven after death.

Comments

Since Dhamma is Opanaiko, meaning we have to realise it ourselves by usage or practicing, it is prudent for the Dhamma learner to inquire the Dhamma contents thoroughly to use it in daily living.
The descriptions in Dhamma nearly 2600 years back still is viable and applicable to our lives. For instant we can apply the ten Unwholesome deeds to the present day actions.

The immoral actions described in the previous post “Ten Immoral Actions (Dasa Akusala)” are the ones that accrue “bad kamma” and will bring “bad results” including rebirth in the lower four realms.

These are called ten immoral acts (dasa akusala). The ten immoral acts are divided into the three categories as follows:

(1.1) Abstain from killing of living creatures of all sorts, abstain being wicked with bloody hands, not engaged in killing living creatures in whatever method, being compassionate towards living beings of all sorts

Realising the above we need to refrain from killing any living being. Today many are involved in professions that destroy and kills either people, animal, or creatures. Making weapons of destruction also is bad. Once you know the bad outcome from such, one need to shift away from such action and need to find a more harmless type of a profession for making a living.

(1.2) Abstain from stealing possessions belonging to others whether in village or in forest not given to him with deceived mind status

This is more wide spread today and come to the fore in a disguise that looks like a harmless thing. Administrators and large business enterprises of powerful countries take resources of the poor countries by numerous ways without any guilty feeling that is considered to be a norm in the world today. Many companies make large profits by burdening the consumers with out any pity on them. Governments and influential people use and spend government revenue for their own use from the funds collected from the people of the country. All these and more actions around us also gets qualified to call as stealing. One should think whether he is engaged in such actions.

(1.3) Abstain from misbehaving sexually with women ,Those who are protected by Mother, protected by Father, protected by Mother and Father, protected by Brother, protected by Sister, protected by Relations, protected by the Clan, protected by Dhamma, those having a Husband, those consented for marriage, those who are promised for marriage on a future day in whatever way ( by garlanding etc).

Here Lord Buddha has well detailed how a house holder or a layman should behave in good conduct with the women. Though the sutta describes upon misconduct of a man, for women also it needs to be applied preferably in the following manner.

(1.3.a) Misbehaves sexually with men .Those who are protected by Mother, protected by Father, protected by Mother and Father, protected by Brother, protected by Sister, protected by Relations, protected by the Clan, protected by Dhamma, those having a Husband, those consented for marriage, those who are promised for marriage in whatever way.

Today the culture of many countries facilitate sexual misbehavior so vast majority is ignorant on the bad effects on such unwholesome action. The protection will only be there for those who refrain from such low activities.

The other seven Wrong Conducts are not difficult to understand other than the Wrong View. This has some depth in each item. For instant, the Mother facilitated for a person to be born as a human by letting him accommodated in her womb in an minuscule egg at the beginning of the life, nourishing for 9 months, with love and affection. Then once he or she was born, looked after for many years until he was able to do things in his own. One simply will not be able to state all the things a mother had done to bring up a child to this world as a healthy individual, making the ability to speak the mother tongue!

As for the Father, how would one be born as a human unless the father did not facilitate to have his sperm come together with the Mother's egg to facilitate the environment to have a human being born. Then to upbring a child, how much the Father needed to find resources for the upbringing of a child for so many years.

Gautama Buddha gave such a prominence to Mother and Father , he consented to call them as Brahmas since the Parents are such benevolent to a person. Thus there are benevolent results for those who look after the well being of mother and father and adverse results for those who neglect to look after the well being of mother and father.

Instant Birth cannot be fathomed by the lesser but unless one has the acceptance of the fact told by the greatest teacher Gautama Buddha, one will not come into Right View. This is a very important factor since Hell and Heaven play a major role in Samsara or the continuous cycle of birth and death. It is to the cessation of this vicious cycle of birth and death, Gautama Buddha aimed all his sermons for his disciples to gain wisdom to become enlightened or to attend the state of Nibbana.

 

 


Excerpt from Sàleyyaka Sutta in Pali -English

 

Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammàsambuddhassa.

 

7.Tividhaü kho gahapatayo kàye adhammacariyà visamacariyà hoti. Catubbidhaü vàcàya adhammacariyà visamacariyà hoti. Tividhaü manasà adhammacariyà visamacariyà hoti.

8.Katha¤ca gahapatayo tividhaü kàyena adhammacariyà visamacariyà hoti? Idha gahapatayo ekacco pàõàtipàtã hoti luddo1 lohitapàõã hatapahate niviññho adayàpanno2 pàõabhåtesu.3 Adinnàdàyã kho pana hoti, yaü taü parassa paravittåpakaraõaü gàmagataü và ara¤¤agataü và adinnaü4 theyyasaïkhàtaü àdàtà hoti. Kàmesu micchàcàrã kho pana hoti, yà tà màturakkhità piturakkhità màtàpiturakkhità5 bhàturakkhità bhaginirakkhità ¤àtirakkhità gottarakkhità dhammarakkhità6 sassàmikà saparidaõóà, antamaso màlàguõaparikkhittàpi, tathàråpàsu càrittaü àpajjità hoti. Evaü kho gahapatayo tividhaü kàyena adhammacariyà visamacariyà hoti.

9.Katha¤ca gahapatayo catubbidhaü vàcàya adhammacariyà visamacariyà hoti? Idha gahapatayo ekacco musàvàdã hoti sabhàgato7 và parisagato8 và ¤àtimajjhagato và pågamajjhagato và abhinãto sakkhipuññho:9 'ehambho10 purisa yaü jànàsi taü vadehã'ti. So ajànaü và àha jànàmãti, jànaü và àha na jànàmãti, apassaü và àha passàmãti, passaü và àha na passàmãti. Iti attahetu và parahetu và àmisa ki¤cikkhahetu và sampajànamusà bhàsità hoti. Pisuõàvàco11 kho pana hoti: ito sutvà amutra akkhàtà imesaü bhedàya, amutra và sutvà imesaü akkhàtà amåsaü bhedàya. Iti samaggànaü và bhettà12 bhinnànaü và anuppadàtà, vaggàràmo vaggarato vagganandã vaggakaraõiü13 vàcaü bhàsità hoti. Pharusàvàco14 kho pana hoti. Yà sà vàcà aõóakà15 kakkasà parakañukà paràbhisajjanã kodhasàmantà asamàdhisaüvattanikà, ] tathàråpiü vàcaü bhàsità hoti. Samphappalàpi kho pana hoti: akàlavàdã abhåtavàdã anatthavàdã adhammavàdã avinayavàdã anidhànavatiü vàcaü16 bhàsità17 akàlena anapadesaü apariyantavatiü anatthasaühitaü. Evaü kho gahapatayo catubbidhaü vàcàya adhammacariyà visamacariyà hoti.

10. Katha¤ca gahapatayo tividhaü manasà adhammacariyà visamacariyà hoti? Idha gahapatayo ekacco abhijjhàlu hoti: yaü taü parassa paravittåpakaraõaü taü abhijjhità1 hoti. 'Aho vata yaü parassa taü mama assà'ti. Byàpannacitto kho pana hoti paduññhamanasaïkappo: ime sattà ha¤¤antu và vajjhantu và ucchijjantu và vinassantu và mà và ahesuü2 iti và'ti. Micchàdiññhi 3 kho pana hoti viparãtadassano: natthi dinnaü, natthi yiññhaü, natthi hutaü, natthi sukañadukkañànaü kammànaü phalaü vipàko, natthi ayaü loko, natthi paro4 loko, natthi màtà, natthi pità, natthi sattà opapàtikà, natthi loke samaõabràhmaõà sammaggatà5 sammà pañipannà ye ima¤ca lokaü para¤ca lokaü sayaü abhi¤¤à sacchikatvà pavedentã'ti. Evaü kho gahapatayo tividhaü manasà adhammacariyà visamacariyà hoti.

11. Evaü adhammacariyà visamacariyà hetu kho gahapatayo evamidhekacce sattà kàyassa bhedà parammaraõà apàyaü duggatiü vinipàtaü nirayaü upapajjanti.6

12. Tividhaü kho gahapatayo kàyena dhammacariyà samacariyà hoti. Catubbidhaü vàcàya dhammacariyà samacariyà hoti. Tividhaü manasà dhammacariyà samacariyà hoti.

13. Katha¤ca gahapatayo tividhaü kàyena dhammacariyà samacariyà hoti? Idha gahapatayo ekacco pàõàtipàtaü pahàya pàõàtipàtà pañivirato hoti: nihitadaõóo nihitasattho lajjã dayàpanno sabbapàõabhåtahitànukampã viharati. Adinnàdànaü pahàya adinnàdànà pañivirato hoti: yaü taü parassa paravittåpakaraõaü gàmagataü và ara¤¤agataü và taü nàdinnaü7 theyyasaïkhàtaü àdàtà hoti. Kàmesu micchàcàraü pahàya kàmesu micchàcàrà pañivirato hoti: yà tà màturakkhità piturakkhità màtàpiturakkhità bhàturakkhità bhaginirakkhità ¤àtirakkhità gottarakkhità dhammarakkhità sassàmikà saparidaõóà, antamaso màlàguõaparikkhittàpi, tathàråpàsu na càrittaü àpajjità hoti. Evaü kho gahapatayo tividhaü kàyena dhammacariyà samacariyà hoti

 

14. Katha¤ca gahapatayo catubbidhaü vàcàya dhammacariyà samacariyà hoti? Idha gahapatayo ekacco musàvàdaü pahàya musàvàdà pañivirato hoti: sabhàgato1 và parisagato2 và ¤àtimajjhagato và pågamajjhagato và ràjakulamajjhagato và abhinãto sakkhipuññho:3 'ehambho4 purisa yaü jànàsi taü vadehã'ti. So ajànaü5 và àhaü na jànàmãti, jànaü và àha jànàmãti, apassaü và àha na passàmãti,6 passaü và àha passàmãti. Iti attahetu và parahetu và àmisaki¤cikkhahetu và na sampajànamusà bhàsità hoti. Pisuõaü vàcaü7 pahàya pisuõàya vàcàya 8 pañivirato hoti: ito sutvà na amutra akkhàtà imesaü bhedàya, amutra và sutvà na imesaü akkhàtà amåsaü bhedàya iti bhinnànaü và sandhàtà sahitànaü và anuppadàtà, samaggàràmo samaggarato samaggakaraõiü vàcaü9 bhàsità hoti. Pharusaü vàcaü10 pahàya pharusàya vàcàya11 pañivirato hoti: yàsà vàcà nelà kaõõasukhà pemanãyà hadayaïgamà porã bahujanakantà bahujanamanàpà tathàråpiü vàcaü bhàsità hoti. Samphappalàpaü pahàya samphappalàpà pañivirato hoti: kàlavàdã bhåtavàdã atthavàdã dhammavàdã vinayavàdã, nidhànavatiü vàcaü bhàsità12 kàlena sàpadesaü pariyantavatiü atthasaühitaü. Evaü kho gahapatayo catubbidhaü vàcàya dhammacariyà samacariyà hoti.

15. Katha¤ca gahapatayo tividhaü manasà dhammacariyà samacariyà hoti? Idha gahapatayo ekacco anabhijjhàlu hoti: yaü taü parassa paravittåpakaraõaü taü nàbhijjhità13 hoti. 'Aho vata yaü parassa taü mama assà'ti. Abyàpannacitto kho pana hoti appaduññhamanasaïkappo: ime sattà averà abyàpajjhà14anãghà sukhi attànaü pariharantå'ti. Sammàdiññhi15 kho pana hoti aviparãtadassano: 'atthi dinnaü, atthi yiññhaü, atthi hutaü, atthi sukañadukkañànaü kammànaü phalaü vipàko, atthi ayaü loko, atthi paro4 loko, atthi màtà, atthi pità, atthi sattà opapàtikà, atthi loke samaõabràhmaõà sammaggatà5 sammà pañipannà ye ima¤ca lokaü para¤ca lokaü sayaü abhi¤¤à sacchikatvà pavedentã'ti. Evaü kho gahapatayo tividhaü manasà dhammacariyà samacariyà hoti.

16. Evaü dhammacariyà samacariyà hetu kho gahapatayo evamidhekacce sattà kàyassa bhedà parammaraõà sugatiü saggaü lokaü upapajjanti.

Suttantapiñake
Majjhimanikàyo
Målapaõõàsako
5. Cåëayamakavaggo

1.5.1
(41) Sàleyyakasuttaü

Note
Times CSX+ font was used to display Pali Sutta passages in English.

Sutta in Pali-English from www.tipitaka.org

        Note  

 

Dasa Kusala Kamma and Dasa Akusala Kamma or Ten Wholesome Deeds and Ten Unwholesome Deeds

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Learning Dhamma through Gautama Buddha's Sutta Discourses